Wali Hawes 1952 - 2014
                          pottery and more!

Techniques & Tips


My Favourite Glazes

People (I should say potters) often say to me "I mean, you do so many things!!!". My response is always the same. "All I do is pottery!". One potter looking at my work in a show said. "It looks like a one person group exhibition!"

Anyway I have clubbed together glazes, slips and decorative techniques that I use in my work.

A word of advice. All my pots are biscuit fired to 750° centigrade. If you fire higher it may affect results. Also the receipes do not always come to 100. It is because as I have progressed I have added or substracted materials and quantities without reference to whether it all adds up to 100.

Doesn`t make any difference. Materials here in Japan are different so use these receipes as a guidline and use materials readily available to you.

Your results are just as valid as mine-Unless of course you want to repeat exactly what I do and then we have to get into molecular weights and glaze chemistry-yawn!!!!

I do not claim these to be all original but developed over the years-tips from people or from a glaze workshop etc.

I thoroughly recommend this book. "Glazes for the Craft Potter" by Harry Frazer. Pitman Publishing. ISBN 0-273-00939-7. Worth its weight in Silver Nitrate

Another tip-Keep things simple! and experiment, experiment, experiment!!!!

Thank you to everyone who has helped.


My Body

Stoneware + grog

Tile Mix (for `in situ` firings)

Kanamatsutsuchi 2 parts
Sand 2 parts
Dosenbo 1 part
Raku glaze 2 parts
Nepheline Synite 1 part

OK, OK you are wondering what dosenbo and kanamatsutsuchi is.

Dosenbo is a very sandy clay that we use to support pots on in the firing. Wadding is probably the best word to use.

Kanamatsutsuchi is a yellow, soft rock that is added to the soil for pottted plants and is obtained from garden centres.

All materials are dry except the raku glaze. The mix is very wet and is applied by placing in a frame and smoothing over with a piece of wood. Wire netting in the middle helps keep the piece in one piece because cracking is normal. The body does vitrify!

Raku Body II

Wadding Clay 6 parts
Stoneware 7 parts
Talc 2 parts
Pulp 2 parts
Grog 2 parts

For high fired raku-we are talking about 1200°C

Slip for Naked Raku

China Clay 50
Porcelain 50

Raku Glazes 950°C-980°C Can go higher but no good for the Copper Matt

Alkaline Frit 85
China Clay 15
Alkaline Frit 75
China Clay 15
Tin 10
Copper-Ruby Lustre  
Alkaline Frit 70
China Clay 10
Lead Bisilicate 16
Copper Carbonate 3
Bentonite 1
Lithium Carbonate 4
Copper Matt  
Alkaline Frit 18
Copper Carbonate 62
Lithium Carbonate 12
Bariun Carboante 12
Borax 4
Alkaline Frit 75
China Clay 15
Tin Oxide 5
Silver Nitrate 1
Chojiro Red (according to me)
Alkaline Frit 80
Red Earthenware 20

(Though I have to admit, I use a redclay from Tokoname called Shudei. It is so red it looks like the colour of red chillies! Maybe ball milling red iron oxide and china clay may be a substitute)

Reduction Techniques

Once you get to temperature take out pieces and place in a container with rice husks.

Throw a handful of ricehusks on top of the piece and seal with lid. I use old oil drums from a local petrol station.

Leaves, pine needles and wood shavings are also used but rice husk is my favourite.

With copper matt I place the piece on a bed of rice husks and then cover with a tin. Wait for a few minutes then lift off lid. Rice husks should re-ignite thus causing flames to lick around the piece. You can see the effects before your eyes. Stop when you see fit. Quickly cover with tin and allow to cool.

A bit like gambling I am afraid!



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